Saturday, August 31, 2019

A Reflection On Modern Medicine Essay

The Hippocratic Oath is a promise in essence â€Å"to do no harm† made by a new doctor before becoming a practicing physician. The oath has been a standard of the medical community for several centuries. It remains just as meaningful and valid today as when Hippocrates wrote it in 400 BC. Medical ethics in today’s modern society has become very blurry and hard to understand (Price 1). It is not the oath that has acquired a more complicated meaning. It is the practice of medicine that has become more complex. Presently, it is becoming increasingly more difficult for doctors to discern good medicine from bad medicine. In our current society political correctness, policy, and politics have come to define good medicine as opposed to what is best for the patient. Over a century ago, H. G. Wells was criticized for his novel The Island of Doctor Moreau written in 1896. Literary critics and the general public were appalled by the atrocities depicted in the text. Contemporary authors, physicians, and scientists could not fathom the cruel behavior of Doctor Moreau. And it was easy to see that Dr. Moreau was practicing bad medicine and had broken his vow ‘to do now harm. ’ The Island of Doctor Moreau was a novel written late in 1896 by H. G. Wells. The plot seems relatively simple and typical of a science fiction novel. A young civil servant is the sole survivor of shipwreck. He is found floating along side the island of Doctor Moreau who rescues him. The young man has no knowledge that Doctor Moreau has fled from his home nation fearing charges of animal cruelty. Upon first impressions, the young man falls in love with the island. Slowly he remembers stories about Dr. Moreau and the horrors he created. The lush fauna and sandy beaches are exciting and new to him. To paraphrase John S. Partington, in The Death of the Static: H. G. Wells and the Kinetic Utopia, Dr. Moreau’s island was like Eden, Dr. Moreau was God, and Prendick was like Adam. When curiosity gets the best of him he wanders deep into the overgrowth and what he finds there is deeply shocking. Doctor Moreau is using a process called vivisection to create a hybrid of animal and human. His research goal is to make man be absent of evil. In the end Moreau is killed and the young man, Prendick, escapes and lives to tell the tale. To gain a better understanding of the novel and the beliefs of H. G. Wells it is important to look at the prevailing scientific knowledge of the time in which the novel was written. The late 19th century was when Darwin first made known his theories of evolution and survival of the fittest. Darwin believed that all species including humans, change with time. In time when God was the creator of all, the idea of evolution and our link to other species was very disturbing to the general public. H. G. Wells was a contemporary writer of this time. In two of his most famous novels, The Time Machine and The Island of Doctor Moreau, he investigates the conflict between nature and God. In summary, H. G. Wells was not just an author but also a trained biologist. What could be more frightening than an island of beasts butchered by a mad scientist. Dr. Moreau does not just alter the bodies but using plastic surgery to make them appear human but also their minds (Mclean). He has them recite the laws he created. The gather together and chant â€Å"Not to go on all-fours; that is the Law. Are we not Men? † But that is not the worst of it. After the chanting of the Law comes the hymn of praise to their Creator: His is the House of Pain. His is the Hand that makes. His is the Hand that wounds. His is the Hand that heals. His is the lightning-flash. His is the deep salt sea. His are the stars in the sky†¦. To summarize Freeman Dyson point in his book titled Disturbing the Universe, a biologist like Wells has had to confront the idea, can the scientific community play god and if so, can they stay sane (Dyson 111). Can the scientific community remain objected and no let the power of life, death, and creation which is left in their hands go to their heads. If the answer is no, than the lesson is learned, and Dr. Moreau is what will be produced. A man who knows no ethical boundaries, who believes he is more powerful than God. Much of H. G. Wells writing explores the idea of what are the implications of modern biology gone wrong. By allowing people and animals to be altered, even if it is treatment for their â€Å"own good† the human race will loose two important anchors- our sense of identity, and the brotherhood of mankind. These two things keep us sane and of course any visitor to The Island of Dr. Moreau looses these completely. Certainly, Prendick does, he must fight for his life and kill, an activity he would never do had he not wandered upon the Doctor’s Island. The scientific community has come a long way since 1896. The knowledge of DNA, we know in detail how life is produced and reproduced. Whoever can read the DNA language can also learn to write it. Whoever learns to write the language will in time learn to design living creatures according to his whim. Presently, the public should fear not the crude Dr. Moreau’s with knives but the young, bright zoologist sitting at his computer cloning an extinct animal, or splicing genes in and out the human genome to create a superior human. Though it was science-fiction in 1896, Wells’ novel is frighteningly close to science today. The issues he pressed in this novel are still current. Even more so because the lines of what constitutes harm are very blurry. What Doctor Moreau did was wrong but aren’t plastic surgeons modern versions of Doctor Moreau? Except clients actually pay them to slice them up and make them more perfect humans. In 2003 there were 8. 7 million cosmetic plastic surgeries. This number is up 32% from 2002 (Hill). What Doctor Moreau did was wrong but aren’t therapists taking advantage of a nation’s worth of people who are â€Å"emotionally underdeveloped, psychically frail, and requiring the ministrations of mental health professionals to cope with life’s vicissitudes. Being â€Å"in touch with one’s feelings† and freely expressing them have become paramount personal virtues. Today-with a book for every ailment, a counselor for every crisis, a lawsuit for every grievance, and a TV show for every conceivable problem-we are at risk of degrading our native ability to cope with life’s challenges. † (Sommers). Is that any worse then Doctor Moreau solution of having his pseudo humans chant the rules of being human? Sally Satel who wrote Victimizing the ‘Victims’, which is the commentary exploring how political correctness in the medical profession is hindering the quality of patient care people receive. In summary Satel says, the goals of the public health sector have changed from using science to improve people’s lives to a â€Å"global ideology to manipulate the way people think about disease and its remedies. † The change is not for the better. Today, she argues, victimology is one of the biggest trends in medicine. There is a trend in the medical world to look at connection as the cause and make diagnoses accordingly. For example, it’s true that wealthier people tend to be healthier. But can you assume that poverty is responsible for higher levels of disease among the poor? Are the poor incapable of helping themselves? Well, yes, argue leading â€Å"indoctrinologists,† as Satel calls the backers of poltically correct medicine. Which is why two health experts could write in the American Journal for Public Health, â€Å"we must address the social inequalities that so reliably produce† these inequalities in health (Satel). HMO’s offer a similar problem. To paraphrase Sarah Cay Bradley viewpoint with the increase of HMO’s there has been a drastic decrease in how much Americans spend on healthcare, also decreasing is the quality of healthcare people are receiving. Doctors are forced to follow the rules of their demanding HMO partners. Even if what is in the best interest of the patient does not follow those rules. There are several cost effective policies that physicians are required to follow today. One concept is time is money, the quicker a doctor gets a patient out the more money that is saved. Doctors always seem to be in a hurry spending very little time actually speaking to their patients. Which can lead to misdiagnosis or overlooked health problems. Political correctness, policy, and politics drive the current scientific and medical communities. Instead of producing healthcare professionals who are compassionate and reflective, they produce professionals can simply follow instructions. Just because doctors today are following the rules set forth for them by insurance companies, and the government does not mean they are practicing good medicine. Perhaps they too, like Doctor Moreau, have forgotten their oath ‘to do no harm’ and replaced it with the creed ‘make more money. ’ In 1896 H. G. Wells, pondered in text, the â€Å"what ifs† of what could go wrong with modern medicine and science. The public rebuked his rather blunt commentary as foolishness and vulgarity. A hundred years later, Dr. Moreau has become the norm. Works Cited Dyson, Freeman. Disturbing the Universe. New York: Basic Books, 1979. Questia. 10 Dec. 2005 . Hill, Theresa. â€Å"More Than 8. 7M Cosmetic Plastic Surgeries in 2003, Up 32 Pct. Over 2002; For 12th Year, American Society of Plastic Surgeons Reports Statistics. † US New Wire Service. 8 March 2004. 09 Dec. 2005 . Mclean, Steven. â€Å"W. Warren Mclean. H. G. Wells: Traversing Time. † Utopian Studies 16. 2 (2005): 320+. Questia. 10 Dec. 2005 .

Friday, August 30, 2019

Why There Is a Lack of Women in Leadership Roles

Leading and Managing People | Dr Andrew Rowe | Manchester Metropolitan University Business School | Elizabeth Ann Marku- 10996807| In recent years, women have increasingly moved into leadership positions within public and private sector organistions. It is notable, however, that their presence is less apparent in the higher echelons of professional and organisational structures where the greatest influence and power in the decision making process resides. Despite the plethora of research examining this issue, there is still conflicting opinions as to why this is the case.This assignment asks you to review the key contributions to this debate and examine the implications for effective leadership in the 21st century. | | Leading and Managing People | Dr Andrew Rowe | Manchester Metropolitan University Business School | Elizabeth Ann Marku- 10996807| In recent years, women have increasingly moved into leadership positions within public and private sector organistions. It is notable, how ever, that their presence is less apparent in the higher echelons of professional and organisational structures where the greatest influence and power in the decision making process resides.Despite the plethora of research examining this issue, there is still conflicting opinions as to why this is the case. This assignment asks you to review the key contributions to this debate and examine the implications for effective leadership in the 21st century. | | â€Å"When millions of women rise around the world, we won’t need an International Women’s Day. When millions of women rise around the world we’ll be able to harness all the days, years and resources we need to deal with climate change, poverty, violence and war†. (Womens History Month March 8 2012) Women in Leadership PositionsBreaking through the glass ceiling †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Purpose of Report In 2011 an article in the Guardian Business Newspaper stated â€Å"The Equality and Human Rights Commi ssion claims that there are 5,400 women â€Å"missing† from top jobs in the UK and the narrowing of the gender gap across business, politics and the media is â€Å"tortuously slow†. This report will review the current and historical research as to why women are not more prominent in leadership roles. Introduction Why is it important for women to be in leadership positions? Historically leadership positions have been male dominated.This is no surprise given that it was not until the Equal Franchise Act of 1928 that women over 21 were able to vote and finally achieve the same voting rights as men. The Equalities Act 2010 has created a unified public sector duty, which is intended to promote equality in public policy and decision-making. The Glass Ceiling â€Å"The glass ceiling† refers to a women's lack of advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers â€Å"You tend not to use your womanhood. You try to neutralize it. For example, you wear a s uit instead of a dress. † (Morrison, White, Velsor, and The Center For Creative Leadership 4)The Human Rights Commission’s research report titled ‘Sex and Power 2011’ looked at twenty seven occupational categories both in the private and public sectors and measured how many women held positions of power and influence. The research revealed that the position of women in high profile positions had changed little since a previous report in 2008 and that in 100 FTSE companies it would take some seventy years for women directors to equal men. This was also mirrored in relation to women MP’s in parliament. (Human Rights Commission, 2011) (Guardian Buisness Newspaper, Tuesday 13 September 2011 )Linder, K. 2012. , The Women of Berkshire Hathaway : Lessons from Warren Buffett's Female CEOs and Directors. [online]. Wiley. Available from: 25 November 2012 Zenger J and Folkman Jack Zenger They are co-authors of the October 2011 HBR article â€Å"Making Yourself Indispensable,† and the book How to Be Exceptional: Drive Leadership Success by Magnifying Your Strengths (McGraw-Hill, 2012). Publication information: Book title: Breaking the Glass Ceiling:Can Women Reach the Top of America's Largest Corporations?. Edition: Updated. Contributors: Ann M.Morrison – Author, Randall P. White – Author, Ellen Van Velsor – Author, The Center For Creative Leadership – OrganizationName. Publisher: Perseus Publishing. Place of publication: Cambridge, MA. Publication year: 1994. Page number: Not availableQuestia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www. questia. com Publication information: Book title: Human Resources, Care Giving, Career Progression, and Gender: A Gender Neutral Glass Ceiling. Contributors: Beulah S. Coyne – Author, Edward J. Coyne – Author, Monica Lee – Author. Publisher: Routledge. Place of publication: New York. Publication year: 2004. Page number: xiii

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Impact of Fdi to Farmers in India

Shanmuga sundaram. S (MBA 1st year student Garden City College) ABSTRACT The goal of this paper is to examine the opportunities, challenges, responsibilities and recommendations for Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) impact on farmers in India. Since last two decades India is the attractive and profit oriented market for the investment to developed countries.FDI is an easy path to enter the market of developing countries as India which has vast consumer market, big retail sector, reach aggregate demand, inadequate domestic supply, weak infrastructure, lack in technological background, political instability, low GDP, poor management skill, sick investment promotion strategies, government outlook towards investment, inadequate finance and unemployment all these factors are responsible for the attraction of developed countries about FDI in India.This paper will give a brief explanations regarding how FDI is going to help farmers in India in sectors like Agriculture, Seed production and Retail sector in India and the conclusion part will show that India needs FD I but it must help everyone in India to be benefited.KEY WORDS; FDI, Agriculture, Seed production, Consumer market, Aggregate demand, GDP,1. INTRODUCTIONToday the hot most debated topic and emotive reactions are because of FDI in India is one of the most stirring and promising markets in the globe. Technical and Skilled human resources are the finest available in the world.Private sector is the lifeblood of economic activity in India which is energetic and well spirited. Middle class population of India is greater than the population of the USA or the European Union which provide India a key place in International competition. Starting from a baseline of less than $1 billion in 1990, India reached more than $24. 2 billion to FDI in 2010. A recent UNCTAD survey projected, India as the second most important FDI destination (after China) for transnational corporations during 2010–2012. The significance of FDI is rising heavily due to its all round contributions to the growth of economy.FDI in developing countries like India will help to improve the current GDP. And in India Agriculture is an important sector of Indian economy and accounts for 15% of the Indian gross domestic product (GDP) Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy if farmers are happy the entire country will move to a success path ahead the role of FDI must benefit the farmers as to go to a strong economic path the farmers must not only produce and sell their product but must make a value added product and the role of FDI must make farmers of India to turn as an entrepreneurs.2. FDI IN AGRICULTURE The FDI inflows to Agriculture services are allowed up to 100% and allowed through the automatic route covering horticulture, floriculture, development of seeds, animal husbandry, pisciculture, aqua culture, cultivation of vegetables, mushroom and services related to agro and allied sectors. Agriculture is the main stay of the Indian economy as it form the backbone of rural India which inhabit ants more than 70% of total Indian population. Only in tea sector 100% FDI is allowed with prior permission.In a statement the department of industry policy and promotion in the ministry of commerce and industry said that FDI policy vide press note 4(2006series) dated February 10 2006 was rationalised. Further it requires company divestment of 26% equity in favour of the Indian partner or Indian public within a maximum period of five years. This also requires approval from the concerned state government in case of change in use of land for such activities.3. ALLOWANCE BY INDIAN GOVERNMENT Farm credit target of 2’25’000 crore for the year 2007-08 has been set with an addition of 50 lakh new farmers to the banking system. * 35 projects have been completed in 2006-07 and addition irrigation potential of 900000 hectares to be created and training of farmers arranged. * A programme for delivering subsidy directly to farmers has been arranged. * Loan facilitation through Agr icultural insurance and NABARD has also been facilitated * Corpus of rural infrastructure development fund has been arranged.4. FDI IN RETAIL (PROS&CONS TO FARMERS) FDI in multi brand retail will boost investment in cold chain facilities and bring down post harvest losses which benefits farmers. India is 2nd largest vegetables producer and 3rd fruit producer if FDI steps in to India the post harvest loss will be in control so to prevent the losses we need investment in the cold chain so more investment to set up such facilities will come with entry of FDI this will benefit both farmers and consumers. 3% of fruits and vegetables have been wasted in India where in Australia are the worlds No 1 in this where only 1% is wasted. India has only 5,300 cold storages so by increasing the well organised supply chain management the wastage can be controlled. So after giant retail companies stepping up to India the problem can be reduced. The company like Wal-Mart supply chain management is hug e and perfect so the losses can be prevented 5. ADVANTAGES India has 600 million farmer’s 1,200 million consumers and 5 million traders both the consumer is benefited by FDI. In Mandi system does not favour farmers because they lose 5% of the value in transportation,10% in broker commission and 10% in quality parameters so direct purchase by large retailers will solve this problemMany village farmers face very difficult to market their product because it takes long distance to travel which includes expenses like transport and labour problem is growing very high so to stop this FDI will make a change.People acquire goods and services at low prices, Savings are possible from routine transactions and Deposit increases from domestic. Good flow of money certainly lead towards sound position of host country.The role of FDI in job creation and conservation is found more favourable . Good inflow of FDI creates new employments in industries and market sectors of host country.FDI incre ases the industrial productivity. With the step of large output, India will boosts exports where the foreign exchange will be high.FDI improves the GDP rate better GDP rate repairs living standard of peoples in host country. If farmers get the money immediately after the harvest they can get ready for the next cycle of production.With the entry of foreign direct investment, the Indian organized retail market has become more competitive in terms of implementing newer business models on the operational format and pricing and reinventing and improving the supply chain.6. DISADVANTAGES If directly taken from farmers what products will come to local market.Foreign companies always try to achieve quick and large refunds on their invested capital. They take interest only in profit oriented ventures and neglect domestic and traditional business from investmentProblem of employment in rural area is not adequately solved. Most of the population of India is lived with unemployment in rural reg ion. FDI favours only urban regions for the investment and neglect rural & backward regions.Indian political environment is not constant. Business policies are affected with the change of political environment. It will not create smooth and fine running FDI policies and benefits to farmer.India will become a slave to foreign countries.7. AGRICULTURAL RETAILINGAs a 2008 ICRIES study of the impact of organised (but Indian owned) found for example, Average price realisation for vegetables is if farmers are selling directly to organised retail is about 25% higher than their products sold to the regulated government mandi. The companies like Bharti Wal-Mart direct purchase from farmers also believed to have augmented incomes by 7 to 10%. Indian government and farmers work alone will not be enough retail chains will have to work with agricultural scientists and farming communities and determine the type and quality of production that will be appropriate for their markets.There will be a p rocess of mutual learning for example in Gujarat the sourcing of certain types of potatoes by Mceain foods using contract farming arrangements is an indicator of opportunities. There has been a lack of investment in the logistics of the retail chain, leading to an inefficient market mechanism in the economy. Though India is the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables (about 180 million MT/annum), it has a very limited integrated cold-chain infrastructure, with only 5386 stand-alone cold storages having a total capacity of 23. million MT. where 80% of this is used only for potatoes.The chain is highly fragmented and hence, perishable horticultural commodities find it difficult to link to distant markets, including overseas markets, round the year. Storage infrastructure is necessary for carrying over the agricultural produce from production periods to the rest of the year and to prevent distress sales. Lack of adequate storage facilities cause heavy losses to farmers in term s of wastage as well as selling price.8. FDI IN SEED PRODUCTIONIn Agriculture sector FDI is permitted in the development and production of seeds 100% FDI is allowed in fertilizer under automatic route in India. FDI inflows to fertilizers are beneficial for the expansion of the seeds and fertilizer industry in India. But in India the impact of seed companies have created huge loss to the farmers. The genetically modified seeds which is allowed in India since the year 2002.9. IMPACT OF BT SEEDS The entry of BT (Bacillus thuringiensis) seeds has created huge loss to the Indian Agriculture and Farming society. The genetically modified BT seeds which has capable to produce its own insecticide.After the entry of BT to India the poverty and many death rate of farmers increased particularly after the entry of the MNC company (Monsanto) in 2002 for every 30 minutes a farmer in India dies especially after the introduction of BT cotton . Compared to traditional seed genetically engineered seed s are very expensive and have to be repurchased every planting season. Genetically engineered plants require more water for growth and more pesticides than hybrid or traditional cotton seeds. This seeds were heavily marketed in India using film stars and with a price tag 4 to 10 times expensive than hybrid seeds.The total percentage of FDI Inflows to Fertilizers industry in India stood at 0. 26% out of the total foreign direct investment in the country during August 1991 to December2005. Prior to hybrids Farmers were able to harvest their own seeds from each crop to be planted next season. However many genetically engineered seeds contain terminator technology, meaning they have been genetically modified so that the resulting crops don’t produce viable seeds of their own. So as result new seeds must be purchased from the top companies. As a result farmers pay high price because the farmers thinks that they can save the money on pesticides.India has a traditional farming techn iques were India have taught great farming techniques to the entire world. But so far now 2 lakh farmers have been committed suicide particularly the highest in Maharashtra state. The entry of Monsanto an American based multinational company has destroyed 25% of farmers living in India. The most important is the turnover of Monsanto is 25 thousand crores which is high than India’s agricultural budget. So if we allow this type of companies like Monsanto through FDI after few years the total Indian economy will be in trouble. Table 1Source: Face sheet of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) from April 2000 to March 201110. CONCLUSION To conclude this paper on FDI impact on farmers is likely to ensure adequate flow of capital into rural economy in a manner likely to promote the welfare of all sections of society, particularly farmers and consumers. It will bring about improvements in farmer income and agricultural growth and assist in lowering consumer price inflation due to the curr ent scenario of inefficient supply chain, lack of proper storage facilities and presence of multi-level intermediaries between farmers and direct consumers.FDI- driven â€Å"modern retailing† being a direct interface between farmers and retailers trigger a series of reactions which in the long run rural sphere can be one of the justifications for introducing FDI in agricultural retailing but the government should put in place an exclusive regulatory framework.11. REFERENCES Economic Reforms, Foreign Direct Investment and its Economic Effects in India by Chandana Chakraborty Peter Nunnenkamp March 2006Reserve bank of India online databases on FDI in farming Retrieved from (https://reservebank. rg. in/cdbmsi/servlet/login/)Retrieved from blog’s at Economic time’s news paper.Retrieved from publications at dipp. nic. in.Retrieved from tamilnadu agricultural university Coimbatore publications at www. tnau. ac. in/.D. Gupta, â€Å"Whither the Indian Village, â€Å"E conomic and Political Weakly, February2005.P Shivakumar and S Senthilkumar, ‘Growing Prospective of Retail Industry in and around India†, Advances in Management, Vol 4(2), 2011.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Discussion Topic Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Discussion Topic - Essay Example If you havent already memorized them, they are: Objective, Offensive, and Mass, Economy of Force, Maneuver, Unity of Command, Security, Surprise and Simplicity. To what extent, if any, do Chinese views follow or depart from the modern principles, and why?   Your opinions are welcome, but back them up with evidence. Sun-Tzu was talking about strategy as contained in his book The Art of War. The writing that says â€Å"the army is established by deceit, moves for advantage, and changes through segmenting and reuniting† must not be taken literally. Sun-Tzu was talking metaphorically. By deceit, he meant the confidentiality and secrecy character of a military organization. A military organization’s objective is to win war wars not to be honest. Divulging one’s military capability blunts its capacity for offensive. One must not be â€Å"truthful† or â€Å"candid† about the status of its military otherwise the enemy would plan against it and could easily defeat it. By â€Å"moves for advantage, and changes through segmenting and reuniting† just meant that a military organization adapts to a situation or its maneuverability by regrouping and when he mentioned â€Å"its speed is like the wind, its slowness like the forest; its invasion and plundering like a f ire; unmoving it is like the mountains. It is as difficult to know as the darkness; in movement it is like thunder", Sun-Tzu merely described the offensive capability of a military organization through a unified command. These Chinese views about military tactics and strategies may sound ancient but is still actually present in today’s military tactics. Sun-Tzu just talked the language of his day but he actually talked about â€Å"classified nature of the military†, regrouping, organization, timing of attack and speedy response of military action. Much of military strategy and tactics today   are derived from the principles of Sun-Tzu

Reduction of urinary catheter days versus catheter irrigation Research Paper

Reduction of urinary catheter days versus catheter irrigation - Research Paper Example Inserted catheters form an entry point for microbes to colonize the patient’s rather sterile body.   â€Å"Following finite colonization, the risk rate of bacteriuria is estimated at (3-10) % per day. The invading microbes could be of low virulence but nonetheless they are no match for the body’s host defense system, which is compromised† (Nicolle 2012, p.13). The immune-comprised patients succumb to nosocomial infections and in this respect, catheter urinary tract infection (CAUTI). Underlying malignancies and therapeutic interventions e.g. corticosteroids, parenteral nutrition are recognized as risk factors.   The risk of suffering from nosocomial infections is mainly linked to duration of hospital stay. Multivariate analyses of evidence shows that catheters and implantable devices are risk factors for over 50% of patients with blood cultures that test positive for bacterial contamination.   Consequently the duration at which a patient has an inserted cat heter strongly predisposes him/her to contracting catheter-associated bacteriuria. However, even short-term use of catheters ranging from 3 to 11 days poses a risk of bacteriuria by up to 26%. Consequently, it is no wonder that bacteriuria develops in nearly all patients who have been catheterized for only 1 month. Of these patients who develop bacteriuria, the disease progresses to urinary tract infection (acteremia (Warren, 1997). This prompted the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to form stringent guidelines.... Consequently the duration at which a patient has an inserted catheter strongly predisposes him/her to contracting catheter-associated bacteriuria. However, even short-term use of catheters ranging from 3 to 11 days poses a risk of bacteriuria by up to 26%. Consequently, it is no wonder that bacteriuria develops in nearly all patients who have been catheterized for only 1 month. Of these patients who develop bacteriuria, the disease progresses to urinary tract infection (UTI) and the incidence of suffering bacteremia is about 5%. Hence, the prevalence of nosocomial CAUTI is 15% of the overall nosocomial bacteremia (Warren, 1997). Effective Catheter Management There is evidence on the overuse and misuse of catheters, and hence the prevalence of CAUTI. Evidence shows that catheters are used for unknown as well as unjustified medical conditions in about 20% of hospitalized patients. Moreover, this continued use of catheters is unnecessary for (0.3-0.5) % of catheterization days. This pro mpted the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to form stringent guidelines concerning the use of catheters. According to the CDC (2011), catheter use should be streamlined and removal of catheters should be done promptly after an appropriate duration of usage. Most important, health workers are required to be responsible and to avoid misuse of catheterization. Guidelines concerning approved techniques of catheter insertion and care were also issued. However, there has been poor adherence and implementation of these guidelines (Furfari & Wald, 2008). Catheter Use Several health conditions warrant the insertion of catheters. For instance, a case of acute urinary retention

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Role of Labor Unions in Modern States Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Role of Labor Unions in Modern States - Essay Example Although post World War political scenario in the US witnessed remarkable growth of labor unions, their prominence has been diminishing for the past few decades. However, the existence of labor unions seems democratic and they have undeniable role in forming welfare policies in a modern state. To begin with, ‘a labor union is a group of workers who have chosen to band together to promote their common interests.’ (Mauer, 2001 p.5). Although the structure of unions varies, their common interests are almost same; they stand for pay rise, occupational safety; prevention of unfair dismissal etc. ‘Collective bargaining’ is the strength of a labor union which helps workers to negotiate their demands with their employers. Although the structure and decision making process vary from union to union, there are certain basic features that all unions have in common. â€Å"The heart and soul of any union is its members, and they are pulled together by a network of first-line union representatives† (Mauer, p.13). Some unions are independent and only involve in there own workplace issues. They choose their own leaders in workplace, design strategies, and take collective actions according to the circumstances. In contrast, there are many unions which have a ffiliation with big labor organizations.

Monday, August 26, 2019

Analysing Finances Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Analysing Finances - Essay Example Additionally, how the company’s share price has been throughout a year, what the audit report is saying about the company’s financial position and performance, whether it provides a positive healthy financial position or the audit report raises some doubts over some aspects of the company. In addition, an investor must try to gain understanding that how the company has obtained the financial numbers, it would be only possible by knowing its corporate strategies. Many reasons require obtain such information. For investors only relying on the provided annual report would be insufficient to convince them as recently many huge companies despite showing a remarkably healthy financial position become bankrupt and declared their bankruptcy; among them, the debacle of energy giant Enron, declared bankruptcy in late 2001 (Barreveld, 2002, pp.118). Additionally, third party evaluation presents more realistic as there are less chances of conflict of interest. Among them, the credi t rankings issued by different ranking companies may offer some help as the ranking companies do not have, most of the time, any direct link or business dealing with the corporate companies. References Barreveld, D.J. (2002), â€Å"The Enron Collapse: Creative Accounting, Wrong Economics or Criminal Acts† USA: IUniverse.

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Public Sector Accounting Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Public Sector Accounting - Research Paper Example In respect to accounting there are differences in objectives of accounting process between public and private sectors. In addition, this paper identifies some of the critical differences in accounting between public and private sectors. Amongst such differences identified is measurement of performance through profits, as well as rate or return as in the case of private sector, which is lacking in the public sector. Other than the critical differences, this paper identifies accounting differences that emanate from the financial control aspect, whereas legislators or parliament financially controls public sectors, private sectors are financially controlled by the shareholders. Another important difference identified is the aspect of spending as public sectors unlike private sectors do not have a choice but to spend. Lastly, the paper identifies the auditing aspect of accounting, which differs in these two sectors in respect to its objectives. From the discussion, the paper concludes th at the differences in accounting stem from varied management and control aspects of public and private sectors. Introduction Public sector refers to national, regional and local governments, in addition to various institutional units that are governed and controlled by governments of different nations or economies. Private sector, on the other hand, is composed of institutions that are neither governed nor controlled by the government (Jorge, 2008). The management and control of such organizations lie in the hands of private individuals and not the government. Given the differences in management and control of the public and private sector, many other differences stem particularly with regards to operations, accounting, and investments. In terms of operations, whereas private sector is driven by the need to make profits, public sector is non-profit but is driven by ensuring that the citizens of a country obtain all the public goods and services at minimal costs (Kieso, Weygandt & Wa rfield, 2011). The following is an evaluation of the accounting differences between the public/government sector and private sector. Differences in accounting between the Public Sector/Government and Private sector Differences in accounting between the public and private sector stem from their management and control. Firstly, there are differences in the objectives of accounting between public and private sectors (Lienert, 2009). In private sector the objectives of accounting amongst other things include informing stakeholders about performance of the business, providing possible investors information, aiding management decision making, and increasingly informing regulators. Public sector on the other hand has different accounting objectives (Jorge, 2008). Amongst the traditional accounting objectives in public sector include providing financial summary, enabling a detailed comparisons of spending to be made with proposed budget, allowing identification of spending so as to ensure c ompliance with law and other legal authorities, and providing the basis for the next budget. Nonetheless, in the modern perspective this has greatly changed where public sector engages in accounting for the purposes of informing stakeholders, providing possible investors with creditworthiness information, aid in management, identifies assets and liabilities, as well as facilitates democracy transparency (Kieso, Weygandt

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Animal Behaviour Questionnaire Assignment #3 Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Animal Behaviour Questionnaire #3 - Assignment Example The behavior of the male lions on the other hand is slightly different because, lions have the tendency of assessing each other’s manes and liked to generally engage in fights without any actual physical contact. However, the darkness of the mane exuded that it was thicker than lighter mane and therefore lend better protection in a fight (West et al,2006, p609) Therefore, the lighter maned ones rarely approached the dark maned models. Dark colored manes means the lion must be aggressive and strong therefore the weaker light colored lions steer clear of the darker maned ones to avoid chanced of confrontations. 3. The findings that indicate that the gender of a species responsible for parental care lives longer is not completely true since it cannot be accurately concluded from the length of an individual’s lifespan that prolonged lifespan was a result of parental behavior among the species. It is also inaccurate the among species which takes a long time to grow and mature, longer lifespan of the parental sex has gained selection advantage is also since a long life is beneficial for the species as a whole and not in terms of individual life spans. There may be alternate explanations for the prolonged lifespan of the parental gender than that of the non-parental gender. We may perhaps propose that among animals where the female is the care provider, the resources are first taken by the female sin order to feed the young ones of the group. The resources therefore decrease and become limited for the male members of the grout which enhances intraspecific competition for resources among the male members leading to life-shortening risks to acquire the resources for survival. On the other hand among species where the male members are responsible for giving care, the female members compete over the limited resources and

Friday, August 23, 2019

History of Linux Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

History of Linux - Essay Example Miller and his team have briefly explained the evolution of this free to use software. In 1994, Red Hat Linux 1.0 got released and it was called Red Hat Commercial Linux in the beginning. It was the very first distribution of Linux that utilized the RPM Package Manager as the format of its packaging. In the late 1990s, other variants like Yellow Dog Linux, Mandriva Linux, MEPIS, Debian, etc. were also developed from the Red Hat Linux code base. In 2003 Red Hat severed the distribution line of Red Hat Linux and introduced Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) for the enterprise setting. But much before, Fedora Project had taken off, which was an effort of the technical community. Fedora and Red Hat Linux are almost the same distribution since Red Hat explicitly patronized the Fedora Project. In this way, the premium operating system remains a free to use product. In 2004, Red Hat Linux 9 was released. Miller and his team further point out that for the next two years, Fedora legacy project was continued, while the official line of Red Hat Linux came to an end. In 2003, Red Hat Linux merged with the Fedora project and today it mainly service in the form of the Fedora distribution. The RHEL, on the other hand, continues to be distributed as a prime network operating system. In 2011, Distrowatch has marked Fedora as the third most popular distribution of the existing Red Hat Linux legacy following Ubuntu and Mint. 1. Linux supports full multitasking with the help of its robust UNIX code base. Along with the facility of running several background programs simultaneously, you can also access multiple devices such as a hard drive, a modem, and printers in one go. 2. According to InformIT, â€Å"Linux safely uses a portion of your hard drive as virtual memory, which increases the efficiency of your system by keeping active processes in RAM and placing less frequently used or inactive portions of memory on

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Improved Ethical Conduct Essay Example for Free

Improved Ethical Conduct Essay Improvement of ethical conduct is influential for the realization of sustainable social and economic development in any organization. Ethical conduct serves the important purpose of strengthening the reputation of an organization in the marketplace. In addition, improving ethical conduct is crucial in mitigating liability costs incurred by the organization. According to some economic and business management analysts, ethical business behavior in a company is instrumental in enhancing cooperation among its stakeholders, a move that functions to enhance the decision making process. This is also important in improving efficiency of executing business objectives. This paper is written in support of the thesis that companies should choose to understand, report on, and improve their ethical conduct as a crucial tool in ensuring sustainable competitive advantage in the market economy. Ethical conduct in an organization is important in protecting and strengthening the reputation of the company (Barnum, Richter, 1994). According to assertion by many people in the community, reputation of a firm is the most important marketing tool for its products. Numerous research findings have provided sufficient evidence linking the purchasing behavior of customers with the perceived reputation of the producing organization. Such findings have been explained by the fact firm reputation is closely attributed with quality and reliability of services, a factor that serves to enhance customer loyalty. In addition, reputation of an organization is important in protecting and enhancing investor confidence (Barnum, Richter, 1994). As an example is the financial scandal of Enron and WorldCom corporations in 2002. these scandals did not only lead to the collapsing of these two giant American corporations, but caused loss of billions of investor capitals, a move that compromised investor confidence in the firms. All these have the indication that enhancing ethical conduct in a company functions to ensure its competitive advantage. Still on improving ethical conduct in an organization is that it enhances the reputation of its individual employees. It has been evidently established that employee recommendations from some companies are highly recognized in the job market. This factor is driven by the fact that such companies have a strong corporate ethical code of conduct, a crucial element in defining the reliability and integrity of the individual. On the other hand, engaging in unethical business practices by individual employee serve both to enhance liability costs and compromise the reputation of the employee in the external job market. Another importance of improving ethical conduct in an organization is that it eliminates liability costs in the organization. According to the provisions of the American as well as international business laws, unethical behaviors by investments are subject to legal proceedings. This is because the law functions the purpose of protecting not only the interests of the firm but also those of the general public, a purpose that is negated by unethical business practices (Barnum, Richter, 1994). Based on this reasoning, it means that organizations engaged in unlawful practices serve to hurt the interest of customers and investors. As an example on improving ethical conduct to mitigate liability is the legal implications brought by the ZZZZ best carpet company. According to available information, the ZZZZ Company was involved in fraud activities to enhance its competitive financial position. However, following the revelation of the scandal, it management were subjected to legal justice and the worth of the organization auctioned to compensate investor who lost in the scandal. In addition, it is not uncommon to hear of customers filing damage cases against companies for falsified advertisements of products. Ethical business conduct is vital in ensuring efficiency of services provision in the organization. Instilling a corporate culture in an organization has it crucial function in ensuring commitment by employees serving in the organization. Just to be appreciated is the fact that the ultimate success of any organization is defined by its effectiveness in meeting the demands of its customers. On the other side, effective ethical conduct dictates for commitment of all stakeholders to the vision, mission, and objectives of the organization. Therefore, improving ethical conduct in an organization is important in improving it service provisions, thus ensuring sustainable competitive advantage of the organization in the marketplace. Improving ethical business practices promotes the decision making process in the organization (Barnum, Richter, 1994). Ethical business behavior serves to mitigate unfair dealings in an organization. It is worth noting that the decision making process of an organization is mainly driven by the financial stand of its investment. This is because such are the defining force of the measures necessary to enhance its economic expansion. This means that, without reliable financial accounting practices, the organization’s decision making process is deemed ineffective. Such practices are to be blamed for the downfall of the big corporations like WorldCom. Thus promoting ethical financial practices is crucial in enhancing the decision making process of an organization. In conclusion, business ethical practices are important component for the realization of long term competitive advantage of an organization in the marketplace. This is because they function to protect and strengthen the reputation of the firm as well as mitigating liability costs to the company. Thus companies should choose to understand, report on, and improve their ethical conduct as a crucial tool in ensuring sustainable competitive advantage in the market economy.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Principles of Physical Security Essay Example for Free

Principles of Physical Security Essay Physical security is the wide phenomena that are taken for the prevention or determent of attackers from a possible access of a resource, information that is stored within physical media and facilities. Physical security is viewed under three fundamental aspects. These are; †¢ Responding adequately to the measures of security that would repel or catch the possible attackers in the event of detection. †¢ Using gadgets and implements that are forthwith important in the control of secure atmosphere. This could include cameras, security lighting and use of alarms, patrols by security guards that provide easy noticing of attacks. †¢ Facilitation of obstacles that are aimed at frustrating any possible attackers and delaying the serious security cases. A proper set of security designs has the compliment of all these structures that work cohesively with one another. A good physical security design is a compliment of four important factors which are intrusion detection, electronic and mechanical access controls, environmental design and video monitoring. Physical security is based on various principles that are applied to solve various security concerns at varied depths. (Walter, 1997). These include; Building security:   Buildings are the source of residence for human beings. However, their structural planning and establishments is compromised by various security threat factors that make the life of those living in them unsafe. Building security therefore implies all the fundamental components of architectural and construction concerns that make buildings safe places for living and hostage. It is the compound of all structures that provide authenticity in the physical structures that provides the safest levels for the habitation. The guarantee for this security is well accorded during the designing phase of the building. The aspect of this security is inclusive of both the internal and the external environments that are occupied by the building. The physical structure of the building should be designed in the most appropriate manner that provides the highest levels of security measures for its inhabitants. It should include a coordinated design in the roofs, walls outlet such as doors, windows and locks (Donald, 1997) Ground security: This is the protective aspect that is attached to airports and its surrounding environment. It includes all aspects that are attached to the physical structure of an airport that makes it a safe place for the various activities that goes on within their contemporaries. It incorporates adequate placement of the structures such as runways, surveillance services, communication systems and all aspects that are endowed within the structures of an airport. Due to the delicacy of the airport operations, high importance should be attached in the highest levels of security for the activities and processes of the airport (Azari, 2003) Access control systems: These are systems of control that are applied in securing adequate security towards information and other facets of information systems. This is the provisions of providing the legitimate users with the principles with which they should apply in assessing stored data. Information is deemed as an essential aspect and a resource aspect within any organization. Access control systems should therefore address the fundamentals with which the information should be mined, shared and made into use. Improper and illegitimate use of data and information may lead to comparative disadvantages for the organization. Improper and inappropriate use of information is subject to huge loses to an organization through misuse of the data and information that leaves the organization at a competitive disadvantage when its information is used by its competitors to develop business strengths. Importantly, the aspects of corporate intelligence as well as industrial espionage are two important aspects that define the rationality for data security. The current business environment and the expanding technological advancement have seen this process fully acknowledged. Various tools have been used to safeguard the organization information and their respective systems. Substantially therefore, physical security on information and their systems remains implicit for the success of the organization (Harold, 2003) Perimeter security: This is the broad components of techniques and methods that are used in providing an outer bounder security of premises. This is essential in preventing possible access of unauthorized persons within the premises. These may keep off trespassers, thieves, unauthorized persons and others persons. It can be secured using physically constructed walls and fences. Perimeter security is made to advance the most optimal security prospects that would help to safeguard the internal structures that are endowed within premises. Perimeter security should be advanced therefore as protective measures that safeguard the internal prospects of the premises. Technological advances security: This is the security protection for innovations, technological advancements, designs and process improvements. This should be protected to avoid losses through comparative disadvantages occurring form business competitors. It includes intellectual property security that can be provided through trademarks. Innovations come as the process of advancement in specific lines of production and manufacturing or personal production of his/her intellectual work. Security on these productions providing the environment with which the producer or the copyright owners can be safeguarded form any possible activities of misuse of the product that may make the profit motive of the technology to be unmet. (Peter, 2000)

The What Is Gender Inequality Sociology Essay

The What Is Gender Inequality Sociology Essay Introduction Gender inequality, or in other words, gender discrimination refers to unfair rights between male and female based on different gender roles which leads to unequal treatment in life. The concept: gender inequality has been widely known in human history but not until the beginning the 20th century has the transformation of gender relations become one of the most rapid, profound social changes (Wright Rogers 2009). And at the same time, the position of men and women were generally set. The growth of this situation has been obviously seen. According to a survey in America females salary at work is 75% as low as males. Coming back to last century, at work, when men were paid 1 dollar, the amount that women received was just 58 cents, in accordance with the law in 1963(Tran 2012) . And in Vietnam, gender inequality is shown in the difference between two genders in the number of babies. Statistics of Ministry of Planning Investment in 2010 reported that there were 110.6 new-born boys out of 100 new-born girls which was much higher than the standard rate. However, as a matter of fact, gender discrimination has made a big argument in society about whether the equality among genders should be encouraged or not. Regarding to this problem, American people seem to appreciate the position of women, meanwhile, the Chinese tend to think of higher power of men in life (Chang n.d.) Thus, this paper, with the purpose of reporting the current states of gender inequality, its impacts as well as the solutions to improve this trend, will give you another look at this controversial problem. 2. Discussion of findings 2.1. What is gender inequality? Gender inequality is a threatening problem which causes unfair treatment in society between different genders. These dissimilarities are distinguished from biological and anatomic factors, especially from differing reproductive roles in life. This misperception comes originally from the wrong understanding about the position of each gender in life.. And from every angle of life we all see the paradox that makes women suffer adversities and put women into unpleasant situation. However, the method of gender discrimination in one place differs from that in others. For example, in workplace gender equality accelerate when you enter the job racing, not only the dissimilar salary, inequality at work is demonstrated through the differences between genders and the amount of money paid (Hsu 2012). In the past, men are prone to have more chances to do things like schooling. Young women seemed to have fewer opportunities for higher education than young men. Regarding to the reasons and the origin of gender inequality, it can be seen that Asia would be the place where gender discrimination has seemed to be a tradition. According to the General office for population family planning, the idea of distinguishing men from women came from the impacts of Confucianism and the awareness of people about life. Men were thought to have a duty of continuing the ancestral line. In that society, not having a son meant to be disrespectful towards the ancestor. Going on with this wrong conception, women are more likely to lose the role in community (Nguyen n.d.) 2.2. How gender inequality affects our lives? Initially, gender inequality has effects on the scale of population. According to statistics of the General office for population family planning, because of the discrimination of genders, the number of new-born boys and girls is unequal. To some people, the hope to have a son loses the balance between two genders. Unfortunately, this situation has occurred for such a long time, so the impacts of it in the population are rather big. As report of Ministry of public health, it is estimated that, despite the attempt to reduce the fluctuation between the birth of boys and girls, in 2020 there will be 4.3 million men more than women. Minister of ministry of public health statement (cited in Phuong 2012), said that if this trend still keeps on going, it will lead to quite a few consequences in security and the order of society before marriage age of children. Now we can see an obvious consequence among the Chinese. According to a Blue Paper on Society released by the China Academy of Socia l Science, there will run short of brides in ten years because of severe gender imbalance among young people, particularly among under 19-aged people (Tang 2010). Secondly, the discrimination of genders leads to some consequences in education. Education is a important tool, is the key to the growth of human. And no matter what gender a person is, he has right to expose to education like others. Chaudhry Rahman (2009 p.175), in reporting World Bank 2001, Schultz 2002, Strauss and Thomas 1995, King and Hill, 1993, World Bank 2007, stated that there are many empirical evidences that, increase in female education improves human development outcomes such as child survival, health and schooling. However, lower female education had a negative impact on economic growth as it lowered the average level of human capital (Klasen 2002, cited in Chaudhry Rahman 2009, p.175). World Bank in 2001 reported that in almost all poor countries, there is a high trend of educational impacts of gender inequality. In poverty, girls are more likely to be influenced to approach education. Finally, economy is the field that is consequently affected, because there is a link between education and economy. The impact of gender inequality on economy is found through the number of male and female students in primary and secondary school which is negative (Barro and Lee (1994) and Barro and Sala-i-Martin (1995), cited Stephan Klasen, p.4). And they claimed that a large gap in male and female schooling may signify backwardness and may therefore be associated with lower economic growth( Barro and Lee (1994) and Barro and Sala-i-Martin (1995)). And lets take China- a country which is famous for strong gender imbalance all over the world- as an example of modeling the impact of gender imbalances on economic performance (Golley Tyers 2012). As mentioned earlier, China is facing a lack of brides 10 years to go and this trend leads to the problems of women purchasing crime. Especially men in poor provinces now are exposing to marriage market and this situation makes the black marke t of selling wife on the rise, said the deputy director of the China Population Association- Tian Xueyuan (cited Tang 2010). Another economic impact of gender discrimination is unequal wages among male and female. According to Yang Juhua, a professor with Renmin University, the wages of women is much lower than mens despite the same level of position (cited Tang 2010). Tang also mentioned the chances to get a job of women are smaller and there is more likelihood of being refused on applying for jobs. 2.3. How do people think of this situation? Ninety-three years ago, people in some places in the world first officially celebrated the International womens day. In ninety three years, there have been a lot of changes made in terms of changing attitudes of people about the inequality of genders. Nowadays we are living in a developed world which is contributed by both men and female so why female have to suffer such that inequality which they dont deserve to? Generally speaking, this kind of inequality has existed for a long time and in every area of the world, no matter where it is ( Chang n.d.). Now its time for the world together make this out-of-date conception fade away. To some extent, the Nobel Committee stated that we cannot reach democracy and peace unless we wouldnt give equal rights and chances for women have. For the sake of making economic recovery, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton claimed that promoting women to participate in economy and increasing their productivity is the key to economic growth (cited Sharma Keefe 2011). In the relationship between economy and education, people cannot underestimate the importance of education. To flourish the economy system, people have to make an effort on schooling. Regarding to the solutions to this, setting up gender-sensitive schools is a crucial step in making a nice environment for learning and teaching. Helping female feel more confident in studying, improving a gender-sensitive curriculum which reflects national policy on gender equality to instruct is also necessary (Clarke 2005, p.11) Fortunately, recently there are many positive responses toward gender equality which make people optimistic about a fair world in the future. Making it more detailed, . Conclusion From all the discussing above, gender inequality is obviously an urgent problem in the world. Despite the fact that its volume much decreases, it still exists and make a lot of people suffer its consequences every day. And there are many reasons leading to gender discrimination which cannot be solved easily. However, with education and progressive thoughts of people, there are also reasons to trust in the future of gender inequality being stopped. Then, hopefully, people can live in fairness no matter what gender they are.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

The Validity of Creationism and Evolution Essay -- Science Creationism

The Validity of Creationism and Evolution Abstract: This paper discusses the validity of both creation and evolution and examines whether they can interact with each other. Besides doing my own research, I have chosen to interview four people extensively involved in either Christianity or biology. I specifically picked interviewees who strongly supported either evolution or creation to get both sides of the issue. Two of the people were from United Christian Fellowship (UCF): Andrew Larratt-Smith, leader of UCF, and Ricardo Dawkins, UCF small group member. I also interviewed two biologists: Paul Matsudaira, MIT Biology professor, and Bettina Bauer, a post-doctoral fellow in the HST department. Paul considers his religious beliefs in between agnosticism and Catholic. He was baptized in the Roman Catholic church but has not thought about God extensively. Bettina is neither religious nor anti-religious. She says that if God really exists, it would not change her life. From these interviews, I hoped to gain a better understandi ng of creation and evolution and examine whether they can co-exist. Creationism is based on the belief that God is the intelligent Designer who created our universe and the natural things in it. It is derived from the two stories of Genesis. The first of the stories (Genesis 1:1-2:3) states that God created the heavens and the earth, light, water, vegetation, animals, and then man in the image of him. In the second account (2:4-2:9), God made the heavens and the earth, water, man from the dust, and then vegeta-tion and animals. Clearly these two accounts differ from each other in terms of order. The response I received from creationists (Andrew) was that the Bible must not always be taken literall... ...onists want to put the hand of God behind various scientific processes, scientists cannot show that they are incorrect. His reasoning is that religion is dogmatic and not scientific in its nature. In conclusion, history has shown that religion and science can interact, and that reli gion has adjusted to the renewing knowledge of science. Therefore, the claim that science and religion are in separate spheres is not solid reasoning to avoid interrelating the two. However, religion as a whole does not need to obey scientific laws, nor can it be proved through repeatable experiments. It may never be disproved by science because its strength is gathered from the faith of its followers. Hence when scientific theories such as evolution extend itself to answer questions of why humans were created and what began life, it will ultimately fail in its attempts.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Thomas Hardys Use of Fallen Women in His Writings Essay -- Biography

Thomas Hardy's Use of Fallen Women in His Writings Thomas Hardy sheds new light on the idea of the fallen woman. Throughout several of his works, he portrays the fallen woman through her own eyes, and, in doing so, presents a different perspective. Three of his works which establish this new perspective are the poem, "The Ruined Maid," and the novels Far from the Madding Crowd and Tess of the d'Urbervilles. In "The Ruined Maid," which he wrote in 1866, Hardy focuses on one woman's recent loss of chastity and how she is perceived by a friend who is returning to town. Rather than feeling ashamed of her actions, she expresses a sense of pride. In the last line of each stanza, she points out how she is ruined; however, the tone of her various declarations is triumphant. For example, at the end of the third stanza she states, " 'A polish is gained with one's ruin' " (l.12). After Hardy portrayed the idea of the fallen woman in this manner through his poetry, he proceeded to explore this idea within his novels. In Far from the Madding Crowd, Hardy's portrayal of Fanny Robin re...

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Magic in The Descent of Innana and Sappho Essay -- Descent Innana Sapp

Magic in The Descent of Innana and Sappho In the ancient text The Descent of Innana and the lyric poetry of Sappho, language is viewed as magic. Not only are the words themselves acting as magic, as in an invocation, but other things manifest themselves as magic throughout the works. The most common throughout the works of Sappho is that of love. Sappho also shows us the magic of everyday life in many of her poems. Finally, the writing down of the works performs a magic all of its own; the magic of continuation. Through the writing of their works the story of Innana and the poetry of Sappho will live on forever. The most obvious use of language as magic is in The Descent of Innana. This text is actually all about language as magic. It originated as a ritual that was reenacted along with group participation as part of a religion. Innana is the earth goddess and in this ritual the story of the past is invoked to reproduce the happenings in it and guarantee the passing of one season to the next. The words also held the power to unite people in the cause. At certain times, the priestess would say a line such as â€Å"my lady abandoned heaven, abandoned earth, to the nether world she descended. Innana abandoned heaven, abandoned earth, to the nether world she descended. Abandoned lordship, abandoned ladyship, to the nether world she descended (Descent 790)†, the audience would have chimed in on the repetitive parts of the lines. It is also possible that, due to the repetitive nature of the ritual, people memorized the ritual and would recite along with the priestess. This s hows how the ancient people bound themselves together through language, they had a common ritual, which they took part in and knew the... ...s could also have eternal life. This is another way that these works are sacred magic. The Descent of Innana is one of the first written pieces of literature we have. Sappho is one of the earliest lyric poets that we have a record of. These works are an example of the idea of the magic of writing itself coming to life. The idea that something can be written down and outlast the writer is truly something the Greeks would have held as magical. As you can see, the writing of ancient Greeks shows sacred magic in many ways. There is magic in it’s most literal form in the ritual of The Descent of Innana. Magic also manifests itself within these texts. There is magic in love, everyday life, and in the writing of these texts, which brings about eternal life. Seen in this way, it is easy to see why people would agree that these texts hold sacred magic.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Indigo Airlines

While the other airlines in the industry purchased rivals, flew different models of planes and tried to offer costly services, Indigo stuck to single model planes with a reputation of being a no frills airline. Indigo has stuck to operating the world’s largest selling single-aisle aircraft, the Airbus A320. This has helped the airlines to not just survive the economic slump in the industry but infact to post profits year-on-year end. Capacity utilization of IndiGo airlines fleet The utilization rate of IndiGo is around 16hours a day which is infact one of the highest in the industry. Thus even without using too many airplanes, the airlines can provide its ferrying service to a larger number of people. On an average its passenger loads have been around 90%. High seating Capacity of aircrafts Indigo operates a fleet of 62 aircraft and has been expanding its fleet rapidly. Even though the number of aircrafts are lesser than some other airlines, it offers higher seating capacity as most of its aircrafts are 180 seaters rather than the standard 60 – 70 seater aircrafts of most airlines. Indigo’s fleet is approximately 6. 5% of India’s combined fleet but it serves a market share 27%. Young fleet of aircrafts One of the strengths of Indigo Airlines is its fuel efficient young fleet of aircrafts as compared to other airlines. A young fleet of aircrafts has ensured increased service levels, high operational efficiency and low maintenance costs. Indigo recently bought 100 new A-320 jets from Airbus. Such volume purchases have helped Indigo in cutting its cost by availing volume discounts. Superior technology The consistent use of superior technology has helped Indigo achieve its USP of on-time performance. By making use of technologies such as ACARS Aircraft Communications Addressing And Reporting System), an automatic message is triggered from the aircraft to control centre and the departure time recorded immediately. Similarly during landing, this technology sends of an automatic message to the control centre which immediately records its arrival time. This has helped the airlines monitor and maintain strict on-time schedules. Excellence in operations Indigo has be en able to sign favorable contracts with engine, airframe and other critical component manufacturers securing warranty claims against defects. This has enabled indigo to minimize technical snags and enjoy superior operational efficiency. Owing to this Indigo has also been able to bring down its maintenance costs. Superior customer service One of the greatest strengths of Indigo airlines is the superior service it offers to its customers. The airline has the highest 95. 3 per cent on-time performance record and the lowest number of complaints per passenger. It offers unique services such as step-less stairs (walking ramp), web check-in, booking capability on handheld devices and automated real-time flight status on handheld devices. Human resources Another strength that Indigo airlines enjoys is its excellent management of human resources. It has a single central training program which gives training to its employees on functional skills, soft skills as well as leadership qualities. With a very robust system of internal promotions and flexibility in horizontal movement across the company, the airlines has seen zero or almost negligible attrition rate over the past server years. Tie-up with hotels Major hotels like Sarovar hotels etc have tied up with Indigo Airlines in order to provide a packaged service to customers. This type of bundling of services has created a value addition to customers who wish to sync their travel times and accommodation timings in order to receive the best deals at reasonable costs. This has in-turn increased the customer base for both the airline as well as the hotels. Superior brand image Good advertising and marketing strategies have increased Indigo’s brand recall and have helped in creating a superior brand image. With very high operational excellence, cost control, great experience, lowest cancellations Indigo enjoys a superior reputation amongst its customers, difficult for the competitors to replicate. Its unique advertising and marketing efforts have also helped in this regard. Weaknesses Easily Imitable Since Indigo has not concentrated too much on providing a differentiated experience with no-frills and on-time being their central theme, this is imitable by other players in the industry and thus a possible threat to its position as a cost leader. Limited number of International Routes Indigo Airlines operates on a limited number of international routes. This restricts the options and choices for international travelers. Only about 14% of its total fleet flies international. This is very low compared to its rivals and the general industry standard for airlines. International routes is an untapped segment where Indigo has not ventured too much into yet. Restricted Services In an attempt to operate as a low-cost airline, Indigo does not operate in many routes where the profit margins are below their set standard. This in turn in-conveniences many passengers. Also, the no-frills element of their services leads to other passenger inconveniences such as cramped seats, lower comfort during travel, non-refundable flights and higher charges of excess baggage.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Importance of Scientific and Technological Development in China

Countries are defined by a lot of factors, which include its geography, demography, technology, economy and military power. Whichever country is superior in all aspects gets to be described as one of the most powerful countries in the world, like America, the British Empire, and Soviet Union, for example. In the history of the world, these mentioned countries were known as superpowers and were capable of influencing other countries in major ways. In recent years, though, there is another country that is slowly on its path on having such a title as well. This country is China.China is a very famous country not only because it is one of the largest and most populated countries in the world but also because it is one of the four ancient civilizations of the world. In terms of technology in the ancient world, China was probably not far behind. After all, China was to the ancient world like America is to the rest of the world today. And in the present 21st century, China is starting to pr ogress again as it continues to improve its technology. After all, technological development can produce a better environment for the people of a country since it could make them happier and have good, satisfying lives (Spring 119).And truthfully, technology is one of the key factors for a country to be called successful or powerful. Whoever has the advanced technology is capable of holding the world in its grip. And since this paper is about the importance of scientific and technological development in China, then it is only proper to discuss first how the science and technology of China developed from the early times to the present. Anyway, China is an emerging power that given probably a decade or so, at least, will be able to compete with America on equal footing. And that statement is not an unfounded assumption.After all, there are now books like China: Friend or Foe by Hugo de Burgh (2006) and China, Inc. : How the Rise of the Next Superpower Challenges America and the World by Ted C. Fishman (2006) that fully discuss and explain the facts behind that assumption. Importance of Science and Technology in China Pre-Imperial China China’s science and technology had been booming since the fourth century BC1. According to David Wright in his book The History of China, pre-modern China, which was 1840 and earlier, already had advanced technology in the aspects of engineering, agriculture, and warfare, to name a few.Apparently, there were a lot of inventions, discoveries and innovations that the Chinese already made years before the Western world did the same thing. For example, in agriculture, the Chinese were the first to develop the trace harness. This was a very important agricultural invention, since prior to its invention, the farm animals that were used to plow the fields were harnessed around their throats and stomachs. (40) Of course, one can only imagine the pain those animals must have gone through.Not only would such a painful experience crea te an uncooperative attitude for the animal, but it probably could choke the animal if it carries a heavy load. With the trace harness, a yoke was placed â€Å"†¦across the animal’s chest from which traces or shafts connected it to a carriage. 1† He adds that it was only nine hundred years later that medieval Europe harnessed farm animals in the same way. At around the same time, the Chinese also did straight-line cropping, which was only practiced by Europeans in the 18th century AD, and in the sixth century BC, started using an iron plow.In medicine, the Chinese already understood that the blood circulates around the body and that it is pumped by the heart around the second century BC. This knowledge was obtained by the Arabs who later spread it to Europe. Also two centuries earlier, they were already using natural gas as a means for heating. They were even able to transport and store it after a few innovations. And even more amazing is the fact that around the same time, someone in China already thought of the first law of Newton and defined a circle properly as shown by Mo-ist writings (Wright, 41).Then, in 14th century BC, they were already using the decimal system and already understood and used the concept of a zero. The compass and crossbow also came from the Chinese. In addition, they were also the first ones to use chemical and poison gas as weapons in battle (Wright, 42). Early Imperial China During early imperial China, around 221 BC to AD 589, technological innovations in China did not cease. The Chinese were probably the first ones to use the power of rivers and streams and the waterwheel to produce power (Wright, 64). The fact that they already had this technology during that time is already amazing.Then add the fact that they actually used this to power huge bellows for iron-casting (Wright, 64). When I imagine the movies I watch were there are medieval blacksmiths, all I can visualize are the smiths themselves or their assis tants doing the bellows work. The Chinese were also the first ones to use suspension bridges. It wasn’t really a flat passage then because the â€Å"bridge followed the curved contours of the suspended rope. † (Wright, 64) But later, the Chinese were able to remedy this after their invention and use of iron-chain suspension techniques1.Then, when they first invented paper, the first kind they made were so durable, rough and hard it was not only used for writing but also for clothing, light armor, mosquito nets, and curtains (Wright 65). They were also the first ones to develop the stirrups for horses in third century AD (Wright 65) and invent and use a seismograph (Wright 66). The seismograph did not really measure the intensity of an earthquake but it could provide the direction which helped the government officials to efficiently provide help to the affected area. The Chinese were already hang gliding and using parachutes long before da Vinci sketched his design of o ne.There were actual recorded events that the Chinese really did so like an emperor requiring prisoners to jump from unbound kites or an instance of a Chinese jumping from a height and landing safely with the use of â€Å"several large conical straw hats tied together to his body† as written by the Chinese historian Sima Qian (Wright 66). Middle and Late Imperial China According to Wright, the technological ingenuity of the Chinese ceased after Mongol conquest. However, it was also during this time that the Chinese invented and perfected one of the most important inventions that had a great impact to the world, the gunpowder.The effect of this invention is an undeniable fact and further discussion on it will be made later in the paper. Then, the Chinese also were the first to print books, but not printing itself, via woodblock printing and invent the first movable type printing. They did the latter around 1040s, four hundred years earlier than Gutenberg’s invention, bu t did not make further efforts on it since it was impractical to use due to the thousand individual characters present in the Chinese writing. Then, they also made the first working mechanical clock and Mercator map projections (Wright 96).In addition, the Chinese made the first vaccines against smallpox and the first phosphorescent paintings (Wright 97). Spread of the science and technology outside China From the study of world history, one can determine that there are a number of factors responsible for how a certain country is today. For example, trade between people and countries in the early times were an important source not only of livelihood but also of science and technology. Knowledge, customs and cultures can also be spread to a certain area of the world via, ironically, war or conquests and religious activity.For a number of the inventions and innovations of the Chinese, some were spread to other parts of the world, both intentionally and unintentionally, probably by tra ding with other people and war. For example, despite efforts of the Chinese to prohibit its spread, the crossbow and secret of papermaking still spread anyway. Especially, the papermaking techniques, which was said to have been guarded by the Chinese for centuries, were supposedly shared to the Arabs when those who knew it became prisoners after the Tang dynasty were defeated by Arab armies (Wright 65).Then, there are the stirrups that were probably shared with Westerners by the Avars, whom the Chinese also knew (Wright 66). For the most part, it was revealed that Europe, the Arabs and the countries near China, Korea and Japan, were the beneficiaries of the science and technology of China. For example, for Europe, it was probably because it was then the superpower of the world. From world history, up until World War II, Europe had a lot of Asian colonies and having read parts of the history of China, it can be seen that Europe was interested in China as well.After all, it repeatedly tried to have both a friendly and not-so-friendly relationship with China. As for the Arabs, they were basically known to be desert nomads and thus it is not impossible for them to have been to China and traded with them. And since there also came a point in Arabic history that they were able to build their own dynasty that spread by conquering in Asia, they must have been to China as well and tried to conquer parts of it. And of course, Korea and Japan are just neighboring countries of China. Eighteenth century to the present ChinaUnfortunately, I was unable to find more technological inventions or innovations that the Chinese have made during this time. As Bodde mentions in his book, it is indeed puzzling that the Chinese did not have the same scientific and technological revolution that really changed Europe and the rest of the Western world (3). After all, the Chinese did have a civilization that had existed for so long and produced so many useful inventions and technology that are actually the groundwork of today’s advancing science and technology way before the Westerners did.To think that if the Chinese continued on with their work, it is interesting to think where they would be at this point in time. Would they be the superpower instead of America? But as Bodde writes, such decline may have something to do with the mindset of the Chinese during that time. After all, the Chinese do adhere to their Confucian beliefs which are opposed to war and competition (3). Then, there’s also the Taoist distrust of innovative technology (4). The social aspect was probably partly a reason for the decline.Or maybe, as Bodde said, the Chinese recognized the hazards of an advanced technology (4). After all, technology is like a double-edged sword. It is capable of defending one’s self and at the same time attacking others. Technology can help man have an easier life but it could also be used for his destruction. One of China’s most important inventions: Gunpowder Speaking of technology that had been used both for the good and bad of mankind, we’ll now talk about gunpowder.It’s probably weird to say that it was actually used for the good of mankind when it has been primarily and most efficiently used in war. Well, according to Embree, the Chinese weren’t looking for gunpowder when they discovered it during the Tang dynasty. In actuality, they were in search of a pill that could fight aging (849) and prolong life, in short, a form of the fabled elixir of life. The product was able to treat some skin diseases, fevers and ringworm. Its recipe was even included in some pharmacology texts.They called it huoyao, or firedrug, because of its explosive tendencies that led to fire in the alchemists’ laboratories. It was then later used for firecrackers and blasting and thus, its military applications were immediately realized. Conclusion It is ironic that the Taoists, who are known for their practices i n prolonging the lives of its devotees, were the ones who produced the gunpowder which was able to do the exact opposite. As mentioned earlier, its application was mainly in the military that used it to make bombs, grenades and cannons.Earlier designs of cannons used bamboo barrels. But they were probably able to improve it since bronze cannons that date back to 1332 were unearthed and are now at the Chinese History Museum. However, it was also discovered that as early as 1128, metal bombards were already used. Then, gunpowder was also used for its rocket-propelling capabilities which the Chinese used to develop â€Å". . . more than thirty different kinds of fire-arrows designed to rain down on the enemy, explode, and catch everything around on fire. † (Embree 850)The invention of gunpowder did not have as much impact to Chinese society as its introduction to the Western world did. After all, with gunpowder, Europe was able to move out of its medieval era via destroying the frontiers of the feudal castles that ruled it then and establishing a monarchy. This monarchy then further utilized gunpowder to strengthen and stabilize its position in Europe. It was later on innovated and used in guns and artillery and as the years go on in bombs, grenades, and everything else that explodes. But with the Chinese, the gunpowder did not have such an impact, as mentioned.Embree adds that it was because during the Tang dynasty, China was already a united empire and thus did not have feudal castles to destroy like the Europeans. Of course, the Chinese did not want to share the gunpowder and the other things they invented or innovated with it. What country would? However, they were unable to stop its spread. After using it to fend off invaders like the Jurchen from forests in the northeast and the Mongols, the Chinese still lost to them anyway in 1127 and 1234, respectively. Then, the Mongols ruled â€Å". . .China and used gunpowder against the Southern Song, the Jap anese, and kingdoms in Southeast Asia. † (Embree 850) As for the spread of gunpowder to the west, the Arabs are certainly not the ones responsible, even if it appeared suddenly in Italy during the fourteenth century. Embree quotes an article by Lynn White, Jr. titled â€Å"Tibet, India, and Malaya as Sources of Western Medieval Technology. † Although the article does not explicitly mention gunpowder, what he says in his article is a probable explanation of how at least the technology of gunpowder suddenly appeared in Italy.White explains that it might be because of the slave trade in Italy. Since the Muslim slaves were gruff and almost always escaped and due to canonical prohibitions, the Genoese merchants thought of securing slaves from central Asia and made it the main source of slaves. It is not impossible for the Genoese merchants to do this since they are known to have been the first Europeans to have traded with the Mongolians, Russians and the Chinese (Embree 853 ). In addition, the slaves that were sold were of both sexes and were relatively old enough to have accurate memories of their own homelands.A study on the records of the slaves also revealed that the majority of the slaves came from areas near Tibet and China (Embree 852). Thus, it certainly implies that the technology of the gunpowder may have been carried through to Italy and into the Western world by the Asian slaves. And gunpowder is still relevant today as the other inventions that the Chinese came up with centuries ago. In connection with that though, the thought of what the world might have been today if it was the Chinese who did it continues to bug the mind.Anyway, it certainly seems that after a long rest, the Chinese government is taking steps to revive its scientific community. China has now established its new science and technology management system that integrates science and technology with industrial and agriculture production. And with their opening up policy, its scientists and engineers concentrated on the world’s advanced level of scientific and technological development. Thus, international exchange and cooperation is now the priority of China since technology acquisition will continue to bring about changes in China’s own technology (Yu 222).An example of this is the increase in the information and communication technology in China, which has one of the world’s largest telecommunications market. Its information technology industry has also been helping the economy triple its gross domestic product (Qiang 2). Indeed, the reforms and opening up that China did brought positive effects, with a fast economic growth. With its continual development and improvement of its science and technology policies, it will certainly close the gap between those with other countries in the near future.

Two Views of a Crime

Whether or not fault Is Justifiable Is concluded by opposing sides of a situation, with the conclusions consistently differing on multiple accounts. In William Shakespearean Hamlet two men, both alike in livelihood, though divergent in dignity, give speeches of persuasion regarding the same situation.Claudia, through means of vain diction and a tone of false self-contempt, demonstrates his justifiability of the fault committed unto Hamlet, who exposes Claudia as an â€Å"adulterate beast† with word choice of animosity and speaks with an attitude of nothing shy of a desire for titillation to annihilate any permissible defense of Classis's doing. The entire situation, coated with a thick layer of irony, entails a sinful man asking for redemption as well as a sinful man begging for justice. In the beginning of both speeches, the men identify Claudia as the initiator of the entirety of the situation.Hamlet, speaking to his son, distinguishes an â€Å"incestuous† and a †Å"traitorous† character. Although it has yet to be made clear that this character of â€Å"wicked wit† Is Claudia, It Is discernible that whatever character he speaks of Is Hough of as vile and disloyal to Hamlet. When Hamlet mentions his â€Å"seeming virtuous queen,† it is inevitable to recognize the â€Å"wretch† who holds the blame for his loss is none other than Claudia. While Hamlet illustrates the initiator as â€Å"lewd† and â€Å"garbage,† Claudia thinks of himself as one of â€Å"strong intent† and connects himself to Cain, the man known as the first murderer.This allusion instantly identifies Claudia as Hamlet's murderer understanding that Cain killed his brother for supposedly being God's favorite. In the case between Hamlet and Claudia, Hamlet Is inning while partaking in the Joys of Queen Gertrude. Hamlet has the â€Å"favored† and Claudia eliminates him from the picture for that reason. Both passages continue, Jou rneying along alternate paths. While Hamlet describes the scene of Classis's fault, Claudia demonstrates narcissism. The â€Å"vile and loathsome† death Hamlet suffered proves as nothing of importance to Claudia who approaches the situation with the conclusion that his â€Å"fault Is past. The dreadful scene Illustrated through Hamlets â€Å"cursed† memory serves as sensible reason for his IEEE that Claudia should have revenge sought about him, forced to pay for Hamlet's condemnation to Purgatory and compelled to pay for his disloyalty. Claudia, however, expresses few signs of guilt. He attempts to grieve, asking the heavens to cleanse his fault â€Å"white as snow. † Nevertheless, he understands that he may never beg â€Å"Forgive me my foul murder† while remaining In possession of â€Å"(his) crown, (his) own ambition, and (his) queen. With this conclusion presented, It Is evident through â€Å"his true nature† that there exists no â€Å"Incli nation† to rid himself of his â€Å"wicked rice(s). † The irony of the situation is presented in that Claudia, in search of redemption, finds redemption just beyond the life he now enjoys, but instead resolves to keep in winnings. While in Hamlet's speech, however, revenge is sought upon Claudia. If success is fulfilled on Hamlet's part, Claudia will not only be rid of his new possessions but also of his insignificant chance of forgiveness. Hamlet's speech concludes as his life has- â€Å"dispatched. Hamlet sends his son with resolves to â€Å"try what repentance can,† though he comprehends that little may come of it. In this comprehension, he explains that as his â€Å"words fly up, (his) thoughts remain below,† symbolizing the falsity of his guilt and his fake desire for redemption. From the standpoint of irony, Just as Hamlet possessed the inability to beg for forgiveness, Claudia will not experience redemption. He will meet the heavens â€Å"with all (his) imperfections on (his) head† Just as Hamlet was forced to experience due to Classis's hand. The Justifiability of Classis's fault lies in two opposing pairs of hands.While Hamlet, through diction of identifiable loathing, believes his brother deserves enmeshment for his doing, a sensible conclusion, Claudia concerns himself with his current well-being. Through language of self-love, Claudia displays fake guilt and knowingly fails to receive forgiveness. As Claudia leaves his need for salvation to the heavens, Hamlet leaves his burning desire for revenge to his son. The Justifiability of fault will continue to remain unknown due to inconvenience that only those associated with the situation may provide the conclusion, and unfortunately those in association will consistently be in opposition.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Education and Method Essay

Submitted By Wamia Akhtar (111011142) Fowzia Morshed (102011133) Rubia Khatun Rubi (113011002) Zannatul Ferdous Bristy (103011202) Nusrat Jahan Jebin (103011156) Research subject: Teaching Method Concept: Learning Process Constructs: * Traditional Classroom teaching * Active Learning Methods * Teaching with Instruments * Teaching Through Tour * Teaching By Creating Pressure Questions: * Traditional Classroom Teaching 1. What system has been followed for traditional teaching? 2. What elements are used in this teaching method? 3. How the traditional teaching has been given? 4. Is it a time sufficient method 5. Can students maintain direct interaction with teacher? 6. Can it make good bonding among the students? 7. How it can be a motivated method for students? 8. Can it create general competitive nature in students? 9. Do you think it pressurize the students to do hard work? 10. Do you think it bring good results for students? 11. Is it interesting or not? 12. Do you think resuming text books are enough? 13. Is it a memorizing based method? 14. Do you find this helpful? 15. Do you feel it is an old system of teaching? 16. Can you relate teaching concepts with real facts? 17. Do you find it challenging? 18. Is it a lengthy process? 19. What kind of preparation you need to take for assuming this method? 20. Do you feel active with this process? * Active Learning Method 1. Do you find group working helpful? 2. Is it a more practical based process of teaching? 3. Can students be involved physically in this process? 4. Is it easy to learn in this way? 5. Are students getting dependent on the course teacher? 6. Do you find this method interesting? 7. Is it an internationally recognized system? 8. Is it helpful for enriching conceptual thoughts? 9. Do you think it creates a distance between you and the books? 10. Is it a stressful method? 11. Do you find it more helpful for making good results? 12. Is it a modern process? 13. Is it saves your time? 14. Can you enjoying the learning through this method? 15. Do you find it easy? 16. Can you reach personally to all technical tools? 17. Do you feel necessity of practicing at home? 18. How you handle this technique of teaching? 19. Is it important for students to be presented all time? 20. Do you find it as short cut? * Teaching With Instruments 1. Are all materials easily findable? 2. Are the materials easy to use for all? 3. How much helpful is the method? 4. Is it a time saving process? 5. Is it a practical based method? 6. Is it a time saving process? 7. In this method of teaching how many times you need to come to the classroom? 8. What kind of role a teacher plays in this method? 9. How often you need to use your text books? 10. Are students enjoying lerning like this? * Learning Under Pressure 1. Do you find teaching with forceful tendency is good? 2. Is it makes you do better result? 3. What kind of difficulties usually you faces? 4. Is it an old form of teaching? 5. How many students can make better result in this method? 6. Do you think teachers work more harder than a student in this method? 7. How much pressure you can handle at a time? 8. Hwo much pressure of study you feel at home? * Learning Through Tour 1. How learning through tour has been worked? 2. How students are participating here? 3. What is the teacher’s role here? 4. Do you find any practical experience by this? 5. Because it is not a classroom based method, how you manage to study by touring? 6. Do you appreciate this system? 7. How students manage their time for this? 8. Is it an internationally recognized system? 9. How many tours you have to join? 10. Is it helpful for making better result?